Exchange among diverse cultures provides a stimulus for the invigoration of the international community and the vitality for development. In order to respond positively to increasing interest in Japan from abroad, which stems from its improved international position, and to enrich the global culture, Japan needs to make cultural contributions commensurate with its national power on the international stage.
Cultural exchange raises foreign countries' understanding of Japan and helps ease various kinds of friction. And at the same time, it promotes Japan's understanding of foreign countries and its internationalization as well as enrich Japanese culture through contacts with different cultures.
From this point of view, Japan has been making strenuous efforts to promote international cultural exchanges not only through conclusions of cultural agreements and consultations on cultural exchanges, but also through programs for exchange of persons, presentation of Japanese culture and cultural cooperation. In fiscal , Japan concluded a cultural agreement with the Soviet Union, which took effect on December It also had consultations on cultural exchanges with five countries.
Japan dispatched cultural missions to Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. As for the exchange of persons, the Foreign Ministry started an invitation program from advanced countries aimed at further promoting mutual understanding and easing various functions with the other. The Japan Foundation, a special corporation under jurisdiction of the Foreign Ministry responsible for government-level international cultural exchanges, celebrated the 15th anniversary of its founding. In commemoration, the Foundation sponsored an international symposium, "Toward a Culturally International Community," by inviting experts from the United States, France and Malaysia.
Private-sector organizations and local governments have also become very active in international cultural exchanges in recent years. The government is making efforts to intensify collaboration and cooperation with their activities.
Japan has concluded cultural agreements with 25 countries and also has cultural arrangements with eight other countries, including East European countries. The Japan-Soviet Union Cultural Agreement took effect on Decemer 25, , when the two countries exchanged ratification instruments in Tokyo. In fiscal , Japan held consultations on cultural exchange with Australia, China, Egypt and India, as well as a steering committee meeting of the Japan-U.
Conference on Cultural and Educational Interchange. Since April , the government has implemented a tax reduction for international exchange activities, exempting from taxation the corporate and individual contributions to public corporations mainly in charge of international exchange. The Foreign Ministry is sponsoring such programs cited below under close cooperation with the organizations concerned. Figures with no special notes are for fiscal As a central body of government-level international cultural exchange, the Japan Foundation is undertaking such program described below under supervision and cooperation of the Foreign Ministry.
Internationalization and Flow of People. The number exceeded 6. Japanese residents, permanent residents and long-term residents, the latter refers to those who stay over three months without any intention of staying permanently abroad have also been on the rise, nearing , Today, one out of every 10 Japanese has a passport. Meanwhile, the number of foreigners visiting or staying in Japan has reached two million a year and their scope of activities have been expanded.
Japan's internationalization is now developing from the area of trade of goods to reach that of human interaction. Traveling and living abroad, which could be described as a symbol of "external" internationalization, are no longer a matter of concern only for limited people in limited areas but for the Japanese public in general.
Under such circumstances, it is important for the government to arrange an environment where long-term Japanese residents abroad can live with relief in their hearts. The government is considering playing a particularly active role in the fields of safety, education and medical treatment because the private sector's self-help efforts are limited in these areas.
source Bearing in mind that the Japanese emigrants and their descendants residing in various parts of the world assume positive roles in promoting international cooperation and exchange between Japan and the countries they live in, the Government recognizes the need to enhance policies further in this direction. How to handle the problems in dealing with the increasing number of foreigners entering Japan, will serve as a key indicator showing the degree of "internal" internationalization of Japanese society, at the same time, it has become indispensable for Japan to pay due diplomatic consideration in dealing with this problem because it is no longer a domestic issue, but one affecting Japan's relations with other Asian countries directly, thus affecting Japan's image abroad.
During the year starting from April , large-scale accidents took place one after another. Among them were: the crash of a South African Airways jumbo jet, the downing of a South Korean jetliner, missile attacks on capital cities in the Iran-Iraq conflict, major changes in the Panamanian situation and the train collision in Shanghai which claimed many lives of Japanese high school students on a school excursion.
In the face of such accidents, the Foreign Ministry, under a hour service, devotes itself to protecting and assisting Japanese nationals abroad. It is also making various efforts to ensure the safety of the Japanese abroad, by offering all available information in advance, improving telecommunications networks in preparation for emergencies and promoting international cooperation to check international terrorism, as a member of the annual summit meeting of seven major industrialized democracies.
The IRA read out a list of unrealistic demands effectively calling for British military and political withdrawal from Northern Ireland by The IRA delegation learned an important lesson. On this day, the IRA detonated 19 bombs in and around Belfast city centre killing 9 people and injuring The IRA insisted that ample warnings had been given and the intention was not to kill civilians - however the warnings were inadequate and imprecise. The bombing was to give the British government a warning it was still in business. Ten days after Bloody Friday, in the biggest British military operation since Suez, 12, soldiers with bulldozers and tanks entered what were considered the no-go areas of the province.
The IRA extend their campaign to England, culminating in explosions killing 19 people in two Birmingham pubs. While the shooting and bombing continued relentlessly at home the IRA had already started to extend its campaign to England. It targeted pubs frequented by off-duty soldiers. Bombs in Guilford and Woolwich killed 6 people and injured many more.
This new campaign was to have a horrific climax when bombs went off without warning in two Birmingham pubs — 19 people were killed and were injured. The IRA ended their ceasefire of after concluding that the British had no intention of withdrawing. The ceasefire was the result of ongoing secret discussions between IRA leaders and the British. Despite the ceasefire ending, the British still wanted to talk to the IRA about a bilateral truce. The following summer his prophesy came true when the IRA dealt the British a double blow.
They ambushed an army convoy travelling between Newry and Warrenpoint, detonating two huge remote controlled bombs. They left 18 soldiers dead, 16 of them members of the Parachute Regiment. Just a few hours before, they had exploded another bomb killing Lord Mountbatten and three others at Mullaghmore in County Sligo in the Republic of Ireland. He later dies with the British government refusing to grant IRA prisoners political status. In , after a hunger strike with an unsatisfactory conclusion - a second was scheduled for 1 March It demonstrated, they said, that the economy had been basically robust until the Marcoses launched their kleptocracy.
Since the s, of course, the Philippines has moved in the opposite direction from many other East Asian countries. The government reports that about two-thirds of the people in the country live below the poverty line, as opposed to half in the pre-Marcos era. The official unemployment rate is 12 percent, but if all the cigarette vendors, surplus bar girls, and other underemployed people are taken into account, something like half the human talent in the country must be unused.
Some Filipino economists contend that the country is about to turn the corner, is ready to make a new start economically as it has done politically. Is the world price of sugar stagnant? Plantation owners can flood seaside sugarcane fields and raise shrimp, which bring high prices and for which Japan has an insatiable demand.
Are American, Japanese, and European companies shifting their production sites worldwide? Why not build more of the plants in the Philippines, which believes it has a well-educated work force and relatively low wages. Just before the first anniversary of the EDSA revolution I spoke with Jaime Ongpin, an intense, precise businessman in his late forties, who had become the new Finance Minister. For the immediate future, he said, the trends looked good. Construction and small-business activity were picking up. And the economy might grow by five or six percent this year--more than the economies of Japan and the U.
Another economist, Bernardo Villegas, has been predicting an East Asian—style sustained boom for the Philippines. Many man-on-the-street Filipinos share a version of this view, which is that Marcos was the source of all their problems, so his removal is itself a solution. Most of the things that now seem wrong with the economy—grotesque extremes of wealth and poverty, land-ownership disputes, monopolistic industries in cozy, corrupt cahoots with the government—have been wrong for decades.
This killings represented the highest loss of life suffered by the IRA in any one incident during the Troubles. The Stranger goes to the Clockmaker's shop to talk with H. Repair is impossible. The design of the missile was sound, but Martin found that it could maintain high quality only through a massive program of inspection. By offering their clients a wide range of funds covering such diverse fields as health care, technology, and energy—and by then encouraging clients to shift savings among these—they have virtually tailored investment portfolios. Sunday 30 January Bloody Sunday. The failure of the two party leaders to respond to the document led to the two main authors resigning their positions.
Then I would read on and discover that the description was by an American soldier in the s, or a Filipino nationalist in the s, or a foreign economist in the s, or a young politician like Ferdinand Marcos or Benigno Aquino in the s. Here is a land consecrated to democracy but run by an entrenched plutocracy. Here, too, are a people whose ambitions run high, but whose fulfillment is low and mainly restricted to the self-perpetuating elite. Koreans and Japanese love to taunt Americans by hauling out old, pompous predictions that obviously have not come true.
Hah hah hah! You smug Yankees were so wrong!
Leafing back through Filipinology has the opposite effect: it is surprising, and depressing, to see how little has changed. In a sociological sense the elevation of Corazon Aquino through the EDSA revolution should probably be seen not as a revolution but as the restoration of the old order. He was, of course, an Ilocano, from the tough, frugal Ilocos region, in the northwest corner of Luzon. Many of those whom he enriched were also outsiders to the old-money, old-family elite that had long dominated the country's politics. These elite groups, often referred to in shorthand as Makati the name of the wealthy district and business center of Manila , regarded Marcos the way high-toned Americans regarded Richard Nixon: clever and ambitious, but so uncouth.
Their name illustrates its Hispanic pretensions. Her great-grandfather came from China and was reportedly named Ko Hwan Ko, which was gentrified into Cojuangco. Most educated Filipinos speak fluent English, but in the stuffiest reaches of the upper class, I was told, the residual Spanish influence is so strong that it is a sign of greater refinement to speak perfect Castilian Spanish.
Her husband, Benigno Aquino, was also from a famous family. Many of her first Cabinet appointees and sponsored candidates for the Senate bear old, familiar names. Douglas Dillon III. The traditional upper class was back in its traditional place. Carmen Navarro Pedrosa, a writer some of whose work was banned under Marcos, recently published a debunking biography of Imelda Marcos. She was a true blue stocking, educated in the United States, and fluent in French.
She represented all that Imelda had ever aspired to. Especially on my second trip to the Philippines, in the summer, many Filipinos told me that Aquino had become strangely passive in office, acting as if her only task had been to get rid of Marcos and ride out the periodic coups, rumored and real. As long as she did those jobs—that is, stayed in office—she did not feel driven to do much else.
Perhaps she will do something to prove that judgment unfair; the August mutiny and preceding social unrest may force her not only to control the army more tightly but also to take economic problems more seriously.