In addition, the buffering hypothesis predicts that received support and mastery protect against the detrimental effects of neighborhood problems. The data in this study derive from face-to-face interviews in — with 1, people age 65 and older residing in the District of Columbia and two adjoining Maryland counties, Prince Georges and Montgomery. Sample selection and recruitment began with the Medicare beneficiary files for the three areas.
In addition to the names of all people age 65 and older who are entitled to Medicare, the files provided information about the race and gender of each beneficiary as well as residential address.
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We randomly selected a total of 4, names equally divided among the three locales, African Americans and Whites, and women and men. The result of this division was the creation of 12 groups, each containing names. Our goal was to obtain a final sample of about 1, people living independently and able to complete the interview, with approximately in each of the 12 groups. However, it was necessary to match names and addresses with telephone numbers, for which we used a firm specializing in such tasks.
In practice, they may prove to undermine the very goods that the proponents of cloning aim to serve, by undermining the unconditional acceptance of one's offspring that is so central to parenthood. In contrast to the above, some psychologists and sociologists have offered a very different perspective — making claim to the possible well-being benefits of work ing. Sufism and Psychiatry by the psychiatrist Arthur Deikman, M. Gurdjieff was one of those who acted as a long-unrecognized conveyor of such information, but he was reluctant to reveal his sources. The Interior Life by Dr.
The matching process eliminates people with private lines, those who exclusively use cell phones, those living in homes where the listing is in the name of another person, people whose move from the area had not yet been registered in the Medicare files, and people living in institutional settings without a personal telephone listing. The 2, names and numbers for which matches were made were then targeted for screening interviews that in part were designed to identify people with cognitive problems that would intrude on the validity of interviews with them.
Table 1 compares the age, gender, and race distributions of the sample and the Census data in the three locales. It appears that the age, gender, and racial composition of the sample roughly mirrors that of the older population in these areas. We averaged the items to create the perceived neighborhood problems index; higher scores indicate a greater extent of neighborhood problems. Response choices are the same as social support. Table 3 reports the correlation coefficients and summary statistics for the main variables among women and men.
Sex is coded 1 for women and 0 for men. Race is coded 1 for Blacks and 0 for Whites. Age is coded in years. Married, divorced, and never married are contrasted with widowed status. We include these as controls because other studies have shown they are related to distress, neighborhood stressors, social support, and mastery. Moreover, Blacks and individuals with less education and fewer economic resources tend to reside in neighborhoods that contain more disorder Ross and Mirowsky, Overall, our aim is to test the focal relationship—with support and mastery as modifiers—net of these other characteristics.
Prior evidence about social support encouraged separate analytical models for women and men. Using ordinary least-squares regression, we regressed each outcome on neighborhood problems, received support, donated support, mastery, and controls. Next, we multiplied neighborhood problems by received support, donated support, and mastery to create interactions.
Beforehand, we centered those variables by subtracting each score on a variable from the overall mean to reduce multicollinearity between interaction coefficients and lower-order terms and to increase the efficiency of lower-order estimates see Mirowsky, , p. Then, we included these interactions to test the hypotheses. In separate analyses, we tested each interaction term alone and then together in the models to assess suppression effects of donated support. Neighborhood problems are associated positively with anger see the first column of Table 4.
In addition, received support and mastery are associated negatively with anger, but donated support is unrelated to anger.
profruits.ru/js/martinsburg/rada-chto-poznakomilas-s-toboy.php That is, received support and mastery diminish the positive association between neighborhood problems and anger. In contrast, the impact of neighborhood problems on anger is similar across all levels of donated support.
It can be observed in the third column that neighborhood problems are associated positively with depression. Mastery is associated negatively with depression, although neither received nor donated support predicts depression. Moreover, none of the interaction terms are statistically significant in the fourth column. Thus, the effect of neighborhood problems on depression does not vary by level of received support, donated support, or mastery.
In addition, there is a positive association between neighborhood problems and anxiety see the fifth column of Table 4. Although mastery is associated negatively with anxiety, received and donated support are not. Moreover, in the sixth column, none of the interactions are statistically significant, suggesting that the impact of neighborhood problems on anxiety is similar across all levels of received support, donated support, and mastery.
In addition, neighborhood problems are associated positively with physical symptoms. Although mastery is related negatively to physical symptoms, neither form of social support is associated with symptoms. Several other peripheral findings among our control variables deserve mention. Black men tend to report less anger, anxiety, and fewer physical symptoms than White men. However, both White and Black men who are taking care of grandchildren report more anger, depression, and physical symptoms relative to those who do not provide care to grandchildren. In addition, adjustment for mastery reveals a suppressed positive association between education and depression.
That is, were it not for their higher mastery, men with more education would report higher levels of depression. Received support and mastery are associated negatively with anger, but donated support is not. Moreover, we hypothesized that inclusion of that interaction would suppress the positive interaction between received support and neighborhood problems. In sum, the association between neighborhood problems and anger is more positive for women who report higher levels of donated support.
Adjustment for that pattern increases the buffering effects of received support. Therefore, the negative aspects of donated support conceal the buffering effects of received support, especially when considered in combination with neighborhood problems.
Moreover, donated support is unrelated to depression. In contrast, mastery does not moderate the effects of problems on depression. The fifth column of Table 5 shows that neighborhood problems are unrelated to anxiety. Although mastery is associated negatively with anxiety, neither received nor donated support affects anxiety. In the sixth column, none of the interactions are significant.
In addition, the final two columns indicate that neighborhood problems are associated positively with physical symptoms.
Mastery is associated negatively with physical symptoms. However, neither form of social support is associated with symptoms and none of the neighborhood interaction terms are significant. As an aside, we tested the possibility that being in the caregiver role or taking care of grandchildren, in the context of neighborhood problems, might be more strongly associated with health, net of our measure of donated support. Therefore, we tested interactions between neighborhood problems and those caregiver roles in a separate analysis not shown.
Neither of those interactions was significant for either men or women.
In addition, as we observed among men, several other peripheral findings among our control variables merit attention. For example, Black women tend to report less anxiety and fewer physical symptoms than White women in our sample. However, among both White and Black women, age is associated negatively and quite strongly with anger—a finding that is consistent with other research Schieman, However, age is unrelated to the other dependent variables.
In addition, it is noteworthy that although the number of people in the household increases feelings of anger among women, it also decreases feelings of depression. Similar to men, caring for grandchildren appears to have negative effects. Among women, it is associated positively with anxiety and physical symptoms—net of donated social support.
Last, education is associated negatively with physical symptoms but none of the other outcome variables. Neighborhood problems represent visible signs of inequality near one's home. The stress process proposes that neighborhood problems can have detrimental effects on health.