A history of trust in ancient Greece

Ancient Greeks
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Greece देश के बारे में जानिये - Know everything about Greece , The Cradle of Western Civilization

Diet was thought to be an issue as well and might be affected by a lack of access to adequate nourishment. Trauma, such as that suffered by gladiators, from dog bites or other injuries, played a role in theories relating to understanding anatomy and infections. Additionally, there was significant focus on the beliefs and mindset of the patient in the diagnosis and treatment theories.

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It was recognized that the mind played a role in healing, or that it might also be the sole basis for the illness. Ancient Greek medicine began to revolve around the theory of humors. The humoral theory states that good health comes from a perfect balance of the four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.

Consequently, poor health resulted from improper balance of the four humors. Hippocrates , known as the "Father of Modern Medicine", established a medical school at Cos and is the most important figure in ancient Greek medicine. The contributions to ancient Greek medicine of Hippocrates, Socrates and others had a lasting influence on Islamic medicine and medieval European medicine until many of their findings eventually became obsolete in the 14th century. The earliest known Greek medical school opened in Cnidus in BC. Despite their known respect for Egyptian medicine, attempts to discern any particular influence on Greek practice at this early time have not been dramatically successful because of the lack of sources and the challenge of understanding ancient medical terminology.

It is clear, however, that the Greeks imported Egyptian substances into their pharmacopoeia , and the influence became more pronounced after the establishment of a school of Greek medicine in Alexandria. Asclepius was espoused as the first physician, and myth placed him as the son of Apollo.

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People would come to drink the waters and to bathe in them because they were believed to have medicinal properties. Mud baths and hot teas such as chamomile were used to calm them or peppermint tea to soothe their headaches, which is still a home remedy used by many today. The patients were encouraged to sleep in the facilities too. Their dreams were interpreted by the doctors and their symptoms were then reviewed. Dogs would occasionally be brought in to lick open wounds for assistance in their healing.

In the Asclepieion of Epidaurus , three large marble boards dated to BC preserve the names, case histories, complaints, and cures of about 70 patients who came to the temple with a problem and shed it there. Some of the surgical cures listed, such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough to have taken place, but with the patient in a state of enkoimesis induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium.

The Rod of Asclepius is a universal symbol for medicine to this day. However, it is frequently confused with Caduceus , which was a staff wielded by the god Hermes. The Rod of Asclepius embodies one snake with no wings whereas Caduceus is represented by two snakes and a pair of wings depicting the swiftness of Hermes. Ancient Greek physicians regarded disease as being of supernatural origin, brought about from the dissatisfaction of the gods or from demonic possession. The Hippocratic Corpus opposes ancient beliefs, offering biologically based approaches to disease instead of magical intervention.

The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of about seventy early medical works from ancient Greece that are associated with Hippocrates and his students.

lunevo-school.ru/includes/2203.php Although once thought to have been written by Hippocrates himself, many scholars today believe that these texts were written by a series of authors over several decades. The establishment of the humoral theory of medicine focused on the balance between blood, yellow and black bile, and phlegm in the human body. Being too hot, cold, dry or wet disturbed the balance between the humors, resulting in disease and illness. Gods and demons were not believed to punish the patient, but attributed to bad air miasma theory. Physicians who practiced humoral medicine focused on reestablishing balance between the humors.

The shift from supernatural disease to biological disease did not completely abolish Greek religion, but offered a new method of how physicians interacted with patients.

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Ancient Greek physicians who followed humorism emphasized the importance of environment. Physicians believed patients would be subjected to various diseases based on the environment they resided. The local water supply and the direction the wind blew influenced the health of the local populace. Patients played an important role in their treatment. Stated in the treatise " Aphorisms " , "[i]t is not enough for the physician to do what is necessary, but the patient and the attendant must do their part as well".

According to the treatise " Prognostic " , a physician was able to increase their reputation and respect through "prognosis", knowing the outcome of the disease. Physicians had an active role in the lives of patients, taking into consideration their residence. Distinguishing between fatal diseases and recoverable disease was important for patient trust and respect, positively influencing patient compliance.

With the growth of patient compliance in Greek medicine, consent became an important factor between the doctor and patient relationship. Presented with all the information concerning the patient's health, the patient makes the decision to accept treatment. Physician and patient responsibility is mentioned in the treatise " Epidemics " , where it states, "there are three factors in the practice of medicine: the disease, the patient and the physician.

The physician is the servant of science, and the patient must do what he can to fight the disease with the assistance of the physician". Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle was the most influential scholar of the living world from antiquity. Aristotle's biological writings demonstrate great concern for empiricism , biological causation, and the diversity of life.

While in modern-day physics and chemistry this assumption has been found unhelpful, in zoology and ethology it remains the dominant practice, and Aristotle's work "retains real interest". In all, Aristotle classified animal species, and dissected at least Aristotle believed that formal causes guided all natural processes. In a similar fashion, Aristotle believed that creatures were arranged in a graded scale of perfection rising from plants on up to man—the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being. He held that the level of a creature's perfection was reflected in its form, but not foreordained by that form.

Yet another aspect of his biology divided souls into three groups: a vegetative soul, responsible for reproduction and growth; a sensitive soul, responsible for mobility and sensation; and a rational soul, capable of thought and reflection. He attributed only the first to plants, the first two to animals, and all three to humans. Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum , Theophrastus , wrote a series of books on botany—the History of Plants —which survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the Middle Ages. Many of Theophrastus' names survive into modern times, such as carpos for fruit, and pericarpion for seed vessel.

Rather than focus on formal causes, as Aristotle did, Theophrastus suggested a mechanistic scheme, drawing analogies between natural and artificial processes, and relying on Aristotle's concept of the efficient cause. Theophrastus also recognized the role of sex in the reproduction of some higher plants, though this last discovery was lost in later ages. Following Theophrastus d. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.

The first medical teacher at Alexandria was Herophilus of Chalcedon , who differed from Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries , noting that the latter pulse while the former do not. He did this using an experiment involving cutting certain veins and arteries in a pig's neck until the squealing stopped.

Erasistratus connected the increased complexity of the surface of the human brain compared to other animals to its superior intelligence. He sometimes employed experiments to further his research, at one time repeatedly weighing a caged bird and noting its weight loss between feeding times. Following his teacher's researches into pneumatics , he claimed that the human system of blood vessels was controlled by vacuums , drawing blood across the body.

In Erasistratus' physiology, air enters the body, is then drawn by the lungs into the heart, where it is transformed into vital spirit, and is then pumped by the arteries throughout the body.

Steven Johnstone

The book A History of Trust in Ancient Greece, Steven Johnstone is published by University of Chicago Press. A History of Trust in Ancient Greece [Steven Johnstone] on klasimfirofu.gq *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. An enormous amount of literature exists on Greek.

Some of this vital spirit reaches the brain , where it is transformed into animal spirit, which is then distributed by the nerves. They dissected these criminals alive , and "while they were still breathing they observed parts which nature had formerly concealed, and examined their position, colour, shape, size, arrangement, hardness, softness, smoothness, connection. Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology and after the rise of Christianity, natural theology would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries.

In the words of Ernst Mayr , "Nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance. Aelius Galenus was a prominent Greek physician , surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire. The son of Aelius Nicon , a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher.

Born in Pergamon present-day Bergama , Turkey , Galen traveled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome , where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors.

Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism , as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for more than 1, years.

His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys , especially the Barbary macaque , and pigs , remained uncontested until , when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius [33] [34] where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations. Galen conducted many nerve ligation experiments that supported the theory, which is still accepted today, that the brain controls all the motions of the muscles by means of the cranial and peripheral nervous systems.

Galen saw himself as both a physician and a philosopher, as he wrote in his treatise entitled That the Best Physician is also a Philosopher. The first century AD Greek physician, pharmacologist , botanist, and Roman army surgeon Pedanius Dioscorides authored an encyclopedia of medicinal substances commonly known as De Materia Medica. This work did not delve into medical theory or explanation of pathogenesis, but described the uses and actions of some substances, based on empirical observation. Unlike other works of Classical antiquity, Dioscorides' manuscript was never out of publication; it formed the basis for the Western pharmacopeia through the 19th century, a true testament to the efficacy of the medicines described; moreover, the influence of work on European herbal medicine eclipsed that of the Hippocratic Corpes.

For example, Johnstone considers the payment of first-fruits to Eleusis, the Athenian grain tax, and the Solonian classes, showing in each instance that there is no evidence individuals were required to measure out wealth precisely. He suggests that they instead estimated total production and the proportional tax, paying amounts they unilaterally declared under oath. Johnstone concludes briefly by arguing that containerization reified trust in the physical control that free men exerted over access to stored wealth.

Denomination in monetary terms did not objectify valuing; as with taxes, valuations were declared ad hoc by interested individuals without recourse to objective standards. Herodotus and Xenophon ; collaboration left few traces for the archaeo-anthropologist. Johnstone submits that appointment by lot logically devalued pre-existing relationships of trust, and therefore trust between members must have been the product of internal practices.

The best evidence he musters is Dem. For the rest, Johnstone is forced to assemble hints and hearsay, arguing that boards operated by the collaborative trading of gnomai , not adversarial debate; aimed at consensus; and, when necessary, relied on simple majorities through voting. Chapter 7 turns to the main negative incentive Greeks attached to boards: legal liability.

Johnstone ends with rhetoric Ch. The discussion builds on this previous work, but the perspective is now self-consciously institutional. This is an ambitious book, and readers will find much food for thought and plenty to argue with. As a whole, however, one must level two fundamental criticisms. First, a history of trust in classical Greece cannot, in the end, ignore the discourse of trust.

Greeks spoke too infrequently here in their own words about whom or what they trusted and why, even as they occasionally hinted that they might in fact have had something to add e. In fact, there is some evidence that they did e. Second, one misses precisely a sense of history or historical change.

Johnstone limits his historical agenda to achieving a sense of contrast with subsequent periods, and in this he succeeds admirably, throwing the essentially unstandardized, subjective, contested classical world into vivid relief against the more impersonal, objective, standardized Hellenistic, Roman, and contemporary worlds.